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Some Other Caligulas
Part II — 1960–2012

Click here to go back to Part I — 1647–1958

• 1960.

Caligola: Cesare e Dio

A typescript screenplay by Silvio Amadio and Carlo Romano. 140 leaves. OCLC Number 637504402. Oddly, there is also a 58-page typescript of a German translation of the treatment (not the screenplay), OCLC Number 637504388. Holdings undetermined. The script was written for Jolly Film of Rome, but it was never produced. Carlo Romano did contribute to the script of the Belinda Lee vehicle Messalina venere imperatrice, and so perhaps this Caligula script was to have been a follow-up tie-in. The following minimalist listing from Robert F Hawkins’s article, “Antiquity Cycle Rules Italy,” Variety (weekly), vol 217 no 6, Wednesday, 6 January 1960, p 168, would seem to refer to this Amadio/Romano script. The producers referred to below are Franco Palaggi and Corrado Colombo, which fits perfectly because Palaggi and Colombo and Amadio did work together, and because Palaggi and Amadio did have contracts with Jolly Film:

• 1963.

by Florentino S Dauz

Manila: Puwaki Publishers, 1963(?). A book of poems.

• 1963.

Caligula and Poppea
by Gant Gaither

“Who’s Where?” Daily Variety, vol 121 no 47, Friday, 8 November 1963, p 2. And that’s all I know. I presume this was never published.

Oh. Wait. I just learned something. From The Sewanee News: The University of the South, vol 29 no 4 (November 1963), p 11. This was probably published, and it was about a different Caligula.

• 1964 at the Queen’s Theatre, London.

adapted by Wolfgang Bauer

Berlin : W. Fietkau Verlag, 1972, © 1964. This seems to be 12 one-acts, one of which features Caligula.

• 1964.

Caligula Foxtrot
by Gerhard “Delle” Haensch

Mannheim Badenia-Musikverl. Mannheim [Vineta-Musikverl.] 1964. The music score is on file at the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek in Frankfurt am Main.

• 1964.


Variety (weekly) vol 234 no 11, Wednesday, 6 May 1964, p 26. A movie produced by Cinefinanziaria, with Anthony Franciosa and Rex Harrison under consideration for the leads. Was this perhaps a carry-over of the movie project from 1960? This movie was never made.

• 1965.

The Epic that Never Was
by Bill Duncalf

BBC documentary about the abandoned The Fool of Rome (a.k.a. I, Claudius). See Archives Hub.

• 1967.

Luna vieja llama a Calígula
by Ralph Barby

Barcelona: Bruguera, 1967. A novel. I suspect that this might have nothing to do with Caligula.

• 1967.

Caligola. Il sadico onnipotente.
by Giuditta Cambiaggio

Milano, G. De Vecchi, 1967. A novel.

• 1968.

The Caesars
by Philip Mackie

Granada Television series. See weekly Variety, Wednesday, 23 October 1968, p 64.

• 1969.


Variety (weekly) vol 254 no 12, Wednesday, 7 May 1969, p 64. I assume this was the ever-delayed movie project from circa 1960.

• 4 December 1969.

Hollywood Television Theatre:
The Plot to Overthrow Christmas

by Norman Corwin

A verse play originally aired on CBS Radio on Christmas 1938. Paul Condylis (Haman/narrator); Jerry Hausner (courier); Karl Swenson (Nero); Ed Platt (sotto voce); John McIntire (Devil); Henry Corden (Ivan the Terrible); Steve Franken (Caligula); Alan Reed Sr. (Santa Claus); Parley Baer (Simon Legree); Jeanette Nolan, Byron Kane, Judy Condylis. Host: Charles Champlin. A KCET presentation; executive producer, Lewis Freedman; producer, Robert Foshko; director, Allan L. Muir. Three years later this was picked up for network broadcast. Here’s “This Week on 5,” from the Ocala Star Banner TV Week, 9–15 December 1972, p 4:

• 1970.

by Varlam Shalamov

A short story included in an anthology edited by Michael Scammel entitled Russia’s Other Writers (London: Longman, 1970).

• 1971.

I, Claudius
adapted by Sir John Clifford Mortimer, directed by Tony Richardson

Daily Variety vol 152 no 34, Friday, 23 July 1971, p 2. This was never made.

• 5 November 1971 in New York City.

Caligula for Baritone and Orchestra
by Alexei Vasilievich Haieff

Don Michael Randel, The Harvard Biographical Dictionary of Music
(Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1996), p 346

Read an interview with the composer at the Bruce Duffie web site.

• 1972.

Le Cheval de Caligula
by Salvadór Dalí

• July 1972 at the Queen’s Theatre, London.

I, Claudius
adapted by Sir John Clifford Mortimer, directed by Tony Richardson

See Archives Hub. Claudius: David Warner. Caligula: Warren Clarke. Messalina: Sara Kestelman. Livia: Freda Jackson. Augustus: Charles Lloyd Pack.

• 8 or 9 October 1972 at the Teatro Club de Arte in Madrid.

Calígula y Flávia
by Manuél de Herédia

No information easily available, but the playwright wrote a press release about it. This play was published in a de Héredia collection entitled Dios en el Banquillo: Comedia Dramática (Madrid: S.E.R.E.S.A., 1974), which is held by one library, the Biblioteca Nacionál de España in Madrid. A few copies seem still to be floating about on the used market.

• 1973.

by Charles Stanley

Arthur Sainer, “Clouds of Angst,” The Village Voice vol 18 no 6, 8 February 1973, p 82:

• 1973.

by David Herbert Watkins Grubb

Rushden, Northamptonshire: Sceptre Press, 1973. A limited-edition poem (150 copies).

• 1975.

Caligula: antologie
by Tudor Arghezi

Bucharest: Minerva, 1975. This anthology includes Arghezi’s poem “Caligula.” If you can speak Romanian, here it is.

• 1976.

I, Claudius
by Jack Pulman, directed by Herbert Wise

BBC TV series adapted from the Robert Graves novel.

I have this on DVD. I tried to watch it. I could never make it more than about ten minutes in. Okay, I admit, my opinions are not widely shared. This TV series was immensely popular. I remember when it was first broadcast on PBS way back when. All the kids in school went totally crazy over it. Except for me. Well, hey, I didn’t like Gone with the Wind either, nor did I like Double Indemnity or the movie version of The Grapes of Wrath, I loathe all the films that the Marx Brothers made under MGM, and I rank The Deer Hunter as the very worst movie ever made, worse even than The Empire Strikes Back, a stultifying waste of money that nearly drove me to violence. On the other hand, I adore such reviled flops as ...Can Heironymous Merkin Ever Forget Mercy Humppe and Find True Happiness?, W.R.: Mysteries of the Organism, Sweet Movie, Skidoo, Three’s a Crowd, and Heaven’s Gate — and it is difficult to deny that, when seen with an audience and only when seen with an audience, Ishtar is delightful. This is why I never win popularity contests.

• 1979.

Caligula helytartója
by János Székely

A collection entitled Képes krónika includes this play. If you can speak Hungarian, you might understand this preview better than I can:

• 1981.

After Caligula
by Ulf Goebel

331 State St # 4F, Brooklyn NY 11217. Poems, privately printed by the author.

• 1984.

La pourpre déchirée: roman
by Nicole Gage

Paris: La Table Ronde, © 1984. A novel. Capsule summary: “A l’écart de Roma, Tibère est malade. Parmi les trois candidats à sa succession, Caligula. Le désordre et le relâchement qui menacent l’empire de tous côtés exigent un homme à poigne. Fils du glorieux Germanicus, Caligula sera cet homme-là.”

• 1985.

“Caligola,” third episode of Prima del futuro
by Ettore Pasculli

This three-episode movie opens with “Seneca,” which has the philosopher using a computer to teach remote students about a past they can never see, and that leads directly to the next two episodes, “Spartacus” and “Caligula.” My friend Filippo Ulivieri looked through the “Caligola” screenplay at the Centro Sperimentale di Cinematografica and tells me: “The Pasculli script is a contemporary story. I read the first few pages and browsed through it just to get an idea. Caligola is the name of a mysterious man. He has no lines and apparently he never appears in person. There are cars, and apparently a TV show or something that lots of people want to participate in. One character is named Peter Pan, another Johnny Guitar. I think it should have been a short film, because there are too few pages and words to make it a feature.” This project was set up by RAI DUE and seems to have been released to cinemas.

• 1987.

Bela Calígula: Impromptu Teatrál
by Augusto Sobral

Lisbon: Publicações Culturais Engrenagem, 1987. Based on Florbela Espanca’s book and her biographical data.

• 1988.

Moi, Caligula: Empereur, prince de Rome, grand pontife et père de la patrie
by Michel Sauquet

Paris: Casterman, © 1988. A children’s book.


Caligula’s Aunt
by John Kolyer

A play, 93 pages, later included in a Kolyer collection entitled Poetry and Plays, Second Series (Newport Beach, CA: Sangreal Press, 1990).


by Stefan Rusin

Poznań: Wydawn. Poznańskie, 1988, 83 pages. Poems.


by Francis Schwartz

A 10:15 musical work “for tape, with human voices, electronic elements, concrete sounds, and prepared piano,” included in a 33⅓ rpm LP entitled Paz en la tierra: música de Francis Schwartz (Puerto Rico: Instituto de Cultura Puertorriqueña, 1989).


Caligula: der grausame Gott
by Siegfried Obermeier

München: Ed. Meyster, 1990. A novel.

• 1990.

Caligula-bár: versek
by Monoszlóy Dezső.

Budapest: Szépirodalmi Könyvkiadó, 1990. Poems.


by RooArt

Included in a rock CD entitled RooArt Young Blood 3 (Sydney(?): rooArt, 1991).

• 1992.

by Darkness

A musical piece included in a CD entitled Defenders of Justice (Staufen [Breisgau]: Aurophon, 1992.

• 1992.

The Fire Queen
by Jack Holland

New York : Penguin, 1992. A novel. Capsule summary: “As greed and confusion rule the splintered kingdoms of West of England, Fen Fire, known as the Fire Queen, must stop Caligula’s fierce army in its march toward domination of Briton.”

• 1993.

Калигула или После нас хоть потоп
by Iozef Toman

Kiev: Atika, 1993. A novel.

• 1993.

by Zbigniew Herbert

Included in an anthology of poems entitled Mr. Cogito (Hopewell NJ: Ecco Press, 1993).

• 1995.

by Crash Bang

Included in a rock cd entitled The Big Backyard (Polydor, 1995), and later in a cassette and CD entitled Australian & Louder.

• 1995.

Caligula’s Clown
by Norm Sibum

Included in an anthology entitled The November Propertius (Manchester [England]: Carcanet, 1998).

• 1996.

by Jim Greer

Included in a CD entitled Lucky Day (Berkeley: Honeybowl Records, 1996).

• 1998.

Caligula’s Dance
by Lou Harrison

Music for a production of Eugene O’Neill’s Lazarus Laughed. The concert arrangement is entitled Short set from Lazarus Laughed: for Flute, Cello, Celeste, and it is included on a CD compliation entitled Lou Harrison: Works 1939–2000.

• 1999.

Lady Caligula
by Lasse Braun


DOE (Documents of Evolution), October 1999; Malatempora: 12 April 2008. A novel. Here are some excerpts from the author’s web page about his book:

...In particular, Caligula has always stirred up controversy. Misrepresentations of his life as Emperor are abundant despite the lack of any sources contemporary with his 4-year-long reign or with the years and decades immediately thereafter.

A long time ago, when I started to read about him, I was amazed! Most scholars and novelists were bashing the young man, calling him a “monster,” a “madman,” and other epithets, yet all what they knew of Caligula had been handed down by two — I repeat two — highly unreliable, scandal-monger Roman historians (Suetonius and Dio Cassius) who wrote about Caligula 60 to 180 years after his death! And the more I read between the lines, the more I understood the origin of all that animosity....

The only reliable source on Caligula’s life and legacy would have been the famous and highly reliable Roman historian Publius Cornelius Tacitus who also wrote about Caligula more than 70 years after his death. Did Tacitus’ painstaking care for historical authenticity shed a different light on the life of our friend “Cal”?...

In Tacitus’ Annales the books from VI to X — precisely the five books dealing with Caligula — have been “lost”! This whole work was composed of 16 books and dealt exclusively with the reigns of the Julio-Claudian Emperors after Augustus — Tiberius, 23 years; Caligula, 4 years; Claudius, 12 years; Nero, 14 years.

Considering that the first five books are dedicated to a huge number of major military campaigns and events of Tiberius’ 23-year reign, and that the last six-to-seven books cover the 26 years dealing with the accomplishments of Claudius, conqueror of Britannia, and with Nero’s amazing life and politics, I’ve often asked myself: “Why did such a serious historian as Tacitus dedicate five books to the mere 4-year-long reign of Caligula?” [Webmaster’s note: He didn’t. See The Real Gaius.]

And why did these books disappear? Why these and not the others? Isn’t this coincidence extremely suspicious?

By what we know from Suetonius, Caligula was a madman with a penchant for foolish enterprises. According to Dio Cassius this Emperor didn’t conquer any land and just made a brief appearance with a huge Army of 250,000 soldiers (!) on the Roman south side of the British Channel with the intention to cross those turbulent waters and march with his Legions on Britannian soil, but finally he changed his mind and went back to Rome.

So...? What else did Tacitus write of such a few “uneventful” years in so many books of his Annales? Well, here is where I usually quote Albert Einstein: “Imagination is more important than knowledge.”

No one could ever convince me that Tacitus’ books disappeared just by coincidence. And no one could ever tell me that by devoting to the short reign of Caligula the same number of books he dedicated to the eventful 5-times-longer reigns of the other Julio-Claudian Emperors, all what Tacitus had to say about Caligula was to report the same ridiculous anecdotes as his contemporary Suetonius. Would you believe that?...

• 1999.

El Caballo de Calígula
by Rafaél Dulanto y Cisneros

A poem included in La Deuda Eterna: Poemario-Antología Jurídica (Lima: Arteida Editores, 1999).

• 1999.

Killing Caligula
by Michael Yatron

Bloomington IN: 1stBooks Library, 1999. A novel.

• 2000.

Caligula paints Guernica at Rais: poems
by Izz al-Din Mihoubi and Omar Ziani

Setif, Algeria: Dar al-Asala, 2000 [1420]. I cannot read even one letter of Arabic. Sorry.

• 2000.

Akşam: Albert Camus’
nün “Caligula” oyunu için

by Oğuz Büyükberber

A musical composition from the CD Velvele.

• 2000.

Les mémoires de Caligula
by Cristina Rodriguez

Chicoutimi, Québec: Éditions JCL, 2000. A novel.

• 2000.

by Macy Gray

Included in a rock CD entitled On How Life Is.

• 2000.

by Speedy J.

Included in a rock CD entitled A Shocking Hobby (Rotterdam: Speedy J Music/Strictly Confidential, 2000).

• 2000.

La dernière folie de Caligula
by Herbie Brennan

Paris: Gallimard jeunesse, 2000. A children’s book.

• 2002.

Calígula, un nuevo musicál
by Pepe Cibrián Campoy y Ángel Mahler

A musical featuring Dámian Iglésias in the lead rôle. Premièred at the Teatro del Globo in Buenos Aires. Excerpts from three different productions below:

• 2002.

Caligula: roman
by Paul-Jean Franceschini and Pierre Lunel

Paris: A. Carrière, 2002, 364 pages. A novel. Capsule summary: “Tout le monde connaît le nom de Caligula qui, après Auguste et Tibère, fut empereur de Rome. On dit de lui qu’il était fou et débauché, mais on ne va jamais beaucoup plus loin. Or sa “folie” est la plus fascinante et la plus romanesque des énigmes. Caius Caesar Germanicus accède à l’empire à vingt-trois ans, quelques années après la mort d’un obscur rabbi du nom de Jésus. Jusque-là, il a vécu dans la terreur du vieux et cruel Tibère, et sa famille a été exterminée. Intelligent, très cultivé, complexé par son physique, il a deux passions: le théâtre et sa sœur Drusilla. Caligula commence son règne adulé par les Romains et par les légions qui lui ont donné son surnom de “petite botte”. Cinq ans plus tard, détesté de tous, il est assassiné. Entre temps, ce jeune homme à l’humour dévastateur s’est comporté comme le pire et le plus sanguinaire des dictateurs du XXe siècle, multipliant les extravagances, les crimes, les provocations... Ce récit, scrupuleusement fidèle aux plus récentes découvertes historiques, galope de Capri à Rome et de Rome à Jérusalem dans une saga riche en rebondissements et en personnages pittoresques: Drusilla l’incestueuse, Claude, le bègue, qui sera empereur malgré lui, son épouse Messaline, ravissante héroïne des nuits torrides, Agrippine et son fils adoré, Néron, qui la tuera un jour, Pierre le pêcheur qui deviendra le premier évêque de Rome.”

4 November 2005 at the Opéra Garnier, Paris.

by Nicolas Le Riche and Guillaume Gallienne; choreography by Nicolas Le Riche

A ballet in five acts.

• 6 April 2006 at the Theater Aachen.

an opera by Detlev Glanert

An opera in four acts, adapted from Camus.

• 27 June 2006.

Entre Calígula y Clarín
by Tere Nuñez

Argentina: Libros en Red, 27 June 2006, 116 pages. Sci-fi novel. SUMMARY: Recorrido a traves de las vivencias y emociones de cada personaje en su caminata por la vida y en su lucha por lo que creen. Entre Calígula y Clarín hay un duende, un duende que nos lleva a conocer el alma de cada personaje, sus mas íntimos secretos. Cada narracion es una vivencia llena de pasión, de dolór o de amór que nos introduce en el camino del conocimiento del alma. En esta colección de relatos, el lector se identificara con algun personaje que estara padeciendo o disfrutando de algo muy familiár para el porque cada situación es una realidád de cada dia y cada personaje es un vecino, un amigo o uno mismo. Al leer estos cuentos, recordaremos cosas de nuestro pasado y reflexionaremos acerca de nuestro futuro.

• 28 December 2006.

Caligula: novela histórica
by Maria Grazia Siliato

Grijalbo: 28 December 2006, 494 pages. A novel.

• 2008.

by Hästpojken

Title song of a Swedish CD.

• 14 July 2008.

Douglas Jackson

NY: Bantam Books, 14 July 2008. A novel, part one of a trilogy on Rome.

• 14 October 2008.

Caligula for President
by Cintra Wilson

Bloomsbury, 14 October 2008, 256 pages. Capsule summary:

In this inventive and biting satire, acclaimed novelist and cultural critic Cintra Wilson reimagines America’s Manifest Destiny as helmed by Caligula, the only leader in world history capable of turning our floundering democracy into a fully functioning — and totally fun — tyranny, both here and abroad. With Caligula running the show, America will finally be able to achieve what the founding fathers really wanted, but never had the nerve to admit. Like, how to:

— Achieve the guilt-free looting of natural resources for the sake of immediate gratification;
— Declare war on abstract concepts (drugs, terror, the ocean) for the sake of imperial expansion;
— Utilize propaganda, psychological operations, and other prisoner-of-war techniques to create a sense of learned helplessness in the citizenry, gain their utterly terrified trust and obedience — and leave them begging for more;
— Rape, pillage, and loot — both here and abroad — with impunity

Wilson also traces the historical arc of Caligula’s life and not-so-hard times, from his privileged childhood in Syria to his ascent to power to his eventual takedown by the hands of an angry populace, to point out the unsettling parallels between his own extravagant reign and a certain administration, which helped usher in a new golden age of unlimited executive power. Part political parable, part cautionary tale, Caligula for President is an ingenious and hilarious send-up of the current state of our Union by one of this generation’s sharpest satirists.

• 2009?

by ????, Kanal5TV

Huh? If you can fill me in, please do.

• 31 March through 17 April 2009.

Caligula: Post Scriptum Board Game
by Pierluca Zizzi

• Players: 2–5
• Length: 60 min.
• Ages: 14+

SHORT DESCRIPTION: The year is 41 AD. Dagger blades shine in the moonlight. Another successful conspiracy. Another emperor is dead! Step into the shoes of the most powerful Romans: Senators, patricians, soldiers, or plebeians, as you plot to replace the emperor with one of your own choosing. Form alliances with your adversaries, and betray them when the time is right. After all, this is Rome, and betrayal is the sport of the day! Caligula is an intriguing mix of strategy and luck, calculation and bluff, tactics and diplomacy set in the treacherous days of the Roman Empire.

LONG DESCRIPTION: It is the year 41 AD. The emperor Caligula has finally gone too far. An occasional political assassination you can understand, but his personal habits are too much to bear! It’s time that somebody step in and deal with the madman before it’s too late. And if you should happen to profit at the same time you rescue the Republic, well, who could complain about that?

Caligula puts you and your friends in the togas of the true powers in Imperial Rome: the guys holding the knives! Send your legates throughout the empire to further your own plans and seize valuable opportunities. Keep a wary eye on your rivals and make them pay dear for their gains. Marshal your resources with care, and when the moment is right, strike! Secure your favorite on the throne, and all the wealth and glory of Rome will be yours for the taking!

Caligula is the first game by Italian designer Pierlvca Zizzi, and the sixth title from the up-and-coming young publisher Post Scriptum. ElfinWerks is pleased to be able to bring this exciting game of plots and politics to America. Do you have the savvy to navigate the treacherous politics of the Eternal City? Or will your rivals leave you banished from the halls of power? Take up your knives for the Republic (And for yourself!) in Caligula!

• 29 April – 15 May 2010 at the Théâtre Français Répertoire.

Caligula Remix
by Marc Beaupré

• 2010.

by ?????

A different sort of interpretation.

Below we have the murder of Drusilla:

• 2011.

Константин Хабенский, “Калигула,” Пермь

A reading by an actor, Konstantin Khabenskiĭ, of a passage of Camus’s play. I don’t recognize the music though it sounds familiar. (I quit listening to music the day that G.W. Bush was proclaimed president. Why? Because I have trouble sleeping. Always have. I’d have the “classical” station on all night to soothe me. I learned a lot about music history that way. The day Bush was installed in office, I had the dread fear that, at 4:30 in the morning, just as I was finally dozing off, there would be a brief news report in which I’d hear that grating voice, and that would ruin any rest I could have gotten. So the radio went off, and it’s stayed off ever since. All these years later, I can no longer recognize music that I once knew by heart.)

• 2011.

Калигула театр наций
by ?????

“Caligula” performed at the Theatre of Nations. Seems to be an adaptation of Camus, but I can’t really tell.

• 2011.

Калігула. Житомир
by ?????

Hope somebody can explain this to me. Zhitomir is under the direction of “People’s Artist of Ukraine” Vladimir Petrov. (They still use such silly-sounding titles?) The lead rôle is played by Andreĭ Kudelya. The author and composer don’t seem to rate a mention.

• 2011.

by ????

Ukrainian amateur group called “Mirror Universe” did this version of Caligula. If you can fill me in, please do.

• 31 March through 17 April 2011 at the House of Yes, East Williamsburg, Brooklyn, New York.

Caligula Maximus
by Alfred Preisser and Randy Weiner

• 12 December 2011.

by Peepholes

Mini-LP and MP3.

• 14–16 June 2012.

directed by Carlos Díaz


• 2012.

I, Caligula: An Insanity Musical
music by Cody Gillette, Libretto by Kai Cofer

Secret Rose Theatre, 11246 Magnolia Blvd, North Hollywood CA 91601.
Friday evenings, Saturday evenings, and Sunday afternoons, 3–26 August 2012.
(How it was funded.)

• 2012.

Artwork “Kaligula” Boki 13 — HD Spot
by Dejan Milićević

And to top that off, there was a press in London named Caligula, as well as a press in Zürich and Amsterdam. There was a record company in Munich in the 1970s and 1980s named Caligula. There is a Caligula Avenue in Coral Gables FL and there is another Caligula Avenue in Palm Bay FL. There is a computer-maintenance business called Caligula Systems in México City. There is a firm in Scotts MI that helps people navigate through health-insurance policies, and it is called Caligula Enterprises, and there is a Caligula Quality Footwear in Brighton. There is a Калигула men’s formal-wear line in Russia. There is a Slovene rock composer who goes by the name Caligula and a US hip-hop composer who goes by the name of Don Caligula. There is a rock group called Caligula and another rock group called Calígula 2000. There is a current author/composer who goes by the name of Caligula Jones. You’ve all heard of the movie actor named Calígula. And everybody knows the graffiti artist named Caligula. In Louisville KY there is someone who is listed as Christopher Caligula and there’s a band called Caligula’s Horse. Finally, we must not forget the famous race horse named Caligula.